By M. J. Aslam
Kashmir tragedy http://www.manilatimes.net/kashmir-tragedy-paradise/292532/ owes its origin to the 1947’s well thought of plan of INC in connivance with last British Viceroyalty & pro-active support of myopic Muslim leaders of JK who, without nugget of history of the sub-continent & lack of aplomb, fell to that thoroughgoing plan of expansionism, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQGFtMYMoys, wittingly or unwittingly. Admittedly, their big political actions from 1939-1957 were historical blunders & historical blunders have historical consequences for the posterity. The past & present generations of the Muslims of JK post-1947 have borne the brunt of the effects of 1947 when this tragedy took birth whence its dark shadows have extended their dreadful reach to every nook & cranny of JK & its residents. Its haunting them everywhere & every time is a fact that only fools or paid agents or biased or fascist minded people may deny. You may question why I refer to the Muslims only? The answer is simple & factual. Right from 1947, it is only the Muslims of JK who are were victims of the worst kind of injustice, oppression & discrimination in Kashmir imbroglio. Everything about Kashmir-tyranny is well-documented & recorded by the most trustworthy rights bodies, within & without India, who are represented by none of the four mentioned types of people above.
But the question is whether all JK Muslims have been, or at least feel to have been, AFFECTED by the tragedy that befell them in 1947 whereafter they are struggling to come out of a virtual inferno they have been coerced to live in. Here I think, on a deeper analysis of JK Muslim community, of which I being myself a part, we can categorize them into three groups. First category is of those JK Muslims who have never accepted, so always challenged, [largely] politically & [just] militantly, the Indian rule in JK. These I call “Disaffected Muslims” of JK who have been always anti-status-qua. From 1947 to 1953, even from 1939 onwards, it were Muslim Conference & other Muslim political, social & religious groups who dissociated themselves from the political actions of SMA & his coterie & vehemently rejected it . Thousands among the Disaffected Muslims were jailed & booked under different “anti-national” laws. This was the time when SMA was head of the transitional government. With the help of local goons & notorious criminals, (http://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/kashmir/october-4-1947-gn-gilkar-founds-ajk/ 229980.html, http://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/opinion/post-office-in-flames/225468.html , (Dogra controlled) police & then Indian forces (from 1947 onwards) SMS & his followers crushed, jailed & even forced many of the Disaffected Muslims to live in exile on the other side of line of divide & different parts of the world. On 9th August , 1953, SMA was, however, dethroned for his ‘famous’ anti-India speech of 13th July 1953 at Martyrs’s Graveyard Naqashband Sahib where he admitted in full public glare that he was used by INC for its expansionist stratagem & that he had deep regrets that he had stood between merger of JK with Pakistan. (http://www. greaterkashmir. com/news/kashmir/august-9-1953-when-sheikh-s-arrest-changed-kashmir-for-ever/ 225289. html). So, from 1954 to 1975, NC was converted into Plebiscite Front under the leadership of SMA that rejected accession of JK with India & called upon India, Pakistan & the world Body to conduct free & fair choice of the people to which of the two Dominions they would like to tie their future. SMA was incarcerated for several years & his followers also suffered torture & imprisonment at the hands of the establishment. But then, Plebiscite Front was shrouded in Indira Abdullah Accord of 24th February, 1975. However, right from 1966 several groups like Red Kashmir, Al-Fatah, People’s League (then JKPFL), Jamat e Islami, Jammiate Tulba, Awami Action Committee & then JKLF began challenging the Indian rule in JK. In fact, some of these groups like JKLF with nationalistic (so-called Kashmiri Nationalism) bent of mind, have had never found a single member from non-Muslims of JK to support and espouse their call for Independent State of JK for obvious reason of their utter faith in “Indian Nationalism” or “Hindutva”. To recall to our minds, SMA had also terribly failed to garner “popular support” of non-Muslims of JK for his changed political ideology from MC to NC in 1939. A countable number of non-Muslims had joined NC but solely for helping link JK with India. JKLF which was formed immediately after Indira-Abdullah Accord of 1975, in Birmingham England has its offices in JK, PAK, England & some other European countries & after 1994, JKLF which was a militant organisation in the beginning of 1989 changed its strategy from militant to non-militant resistance & since then, it is “politically” following its path of resistance against Indian rule in JK. From 1989 till date, the “armed rebellion” that had has found overwhelmingly huge support among Muslim population of JK is continuing against Indian rule in one or the other form. No doubt, in the early nineties, militant organisations under different umbrella groups dominated the JK political landscape. And, presently entire Muslim population feeling completely alienated & deceived by the strong-arm-tactics employed, & backtracking from what was promised to them, by the Indian rulers, and against all odds, they are “peacefully & continuously” recording their resistance against it.
The second category is those of the “Affected Muslims” of JK by the conflict. This category includes tens of thousands of people of JK. It’s no exaggeration & exacerbation of the facts that overwhelming number of the “Affected” people of JK are Muslims of JK. In 1947 itself lacs of Muslims were butchered & massacred in Jammu Division alone by Dogra forces, Sikh & Hindu goons from Punjab & Jammu belts, causing displacements & arson apart. Some non-Muslims also lost their life & property in the communal flare up that had engulfed Indian sub continent after partition but in Kashmir & those districts of Jammu where Muslims were in absolute majority, no reaction came from the Muslims to the carnage that was done to their fellow religionists in three predominantly Hindu Districts of Jammu. During plebiscite days, as stated above, many civilians were tortured in police stations & some imprisoned for anti-State activities. After burial of plebiscite demand (for self-determination) by the NC leadership, the people who challenged the “betrayal” were punished & harassed in different ways by the State authorities including newly crafted “legislative weapon” of PSA. From 1989 till date, the inexplicable sufferings & injustices meted out to the JK Muslims are well documented & recorded, therefore, they hardly need further elaboration here as they are morning fresh in the memories of local population everywhere. https:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Human _rights_ abuses _in _Jammu _and _Kashmir:http://www. greaterkashmir. com/news/op-ed/kashmiri-pandits-an-incendiary -venomous-narrative/225877.html
There is a third category of Muslims of JK. It mainly comprises of those people who have right from the start of 1947 kept themselves away from the ill effects of the conflict either directly or indirectly by supporting Indian claim on Kashmir like NC leaders , their close relations & siblings, Bakhshis, Muftis, Qasims, Sadiqs, Azads & their ardently faithful supporters who have made huge assets http:// kashmirreader. com/2016/06/13/pro-india-parties-looted-jk-deeni-mahaz/; http://www. tribuneindia. com/news/jammu-kashmir/politics/pro-india-parties-behind-economic-crisis-mirwaiz/ 261228. html ;http:// kashmirwatch.com/pro-indian-politicians-sellers-of-kashmir-resources-hurriyat-m/;http://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/front-page/geelani-blames –main stream-parties-for-loot-of-jk-resources/240250.html within India & beyond for their pro-India stand. These are the people who have enjoyed the “power” of State governments from time to time, of course, with plenary blessings of Delhi rulers. These people are rich elite class of JK Muslim community who have assumed different hues of political & social groups to deliver sermons, within Indian & off-shores, through media & social media, and come to power to rule, the JK Muslims. The non-Muslims of JK have, however, never accepted them as anything significant that matters for them in their cherished-Indian-version of Kashmir imbroglio, the rulers being a distant-reality. Present polarization of JK State in elections & political thought prove it beyond a nugget of doubt. In this group of “Unaffected Muslims” come several bureaucrats, technocrats, administrators, government , semi-government officials, businessmen & other professionals who & whose families have a history of having always kowtowed the Indian line on Kashmir-conflict for their political affiliations intensively grounded in SMA-personality-cult & suchlike cults, & for their extraordinary material gains & investments they have repeated & made out of miseries of common Kashmiri Muslims. Now post-retirement, this category of Unaffected JK Muslims are propagating their old pro- India ideology in novel forms of self-styled journalists & intellectual cul-de-sacs, and hired-secular molvis & muftis. You will find them busy in obfuscating the historical facts & realities of Kashmir- Conflict in new bottles of sweet-wine which is liked & drunk more by anti-Kashmir brigade than larger segment of local populace who hate their leaders for having bartered Kashmir for material benefits with India. http:// economictimes. indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/pro-india-politics -is-not-pro-people-in-kashmir-iftikhar-misgar/articleshow/53590106.cms http:// www. dnaindia.Com/india/report-young-generation-hates-pro-india-politicians-in-kashmir-says-mehb ooba-mufti-1920637 ; https://www.dawn.com/news/1166493 That apart, this group also includes the commonly called “renegades”: both political & militant.
- During freedom struggle of India, millions served British India in government jobs. They were never taken as anti-Freedom Movement. But those Indians who assisted British in quelling & crushing Freedom Fighters whether through bureaucracy or police force or British soldiers were always taken as anti-India, anti-Freedom-Movement. This distinction between combatants & non-combatants has been so candidly & emphatically stressed upon by Islam in all battles with non Muslims.
- Kashmiri community has mostly stood like one body in all times of grief. If a part gets injured, the whole body feels pain. Exemplary display of this mutuality & belongingness, self-help & rescue was witnessed by one and all more than many times among the Kashmiris. But the “Unaffected Lot” among them has always caused ripples in their unity & divided them into three categories, as explained above. While Disaffected & Affected Kashmiris sail in the same boat of suffering, of course, with varying degrees of impact, the Unaffected Ones watch & rejoice their suffering-sail in a vicious sea of hurricanes of hatred, force, lies & thrust from the oppressor.
Note: The views expressed in this column are personal of the author & not of the organisation he works for.